International Journal of Art and Design (IJAD) is a double-blind peer reviewed journal that provides twice per year publication (in February and August) of articles in the field of Creative Arts, Visual Communication, Design Technology & Humanities. IJAD aims in bringing together researchers to participate in sharing ideas and findings in the field of high quality papers on theoretical developments and practical applications in art and design. Original research papers and state-of-the-art reviews are invited for publications. It also hopes to encourage a culture of writing and publishing among lecturers, inside and outside of Universiti Teknologi MARA.

IJAD is a refereed open-access journal indexed in MyJurnal and Google Scholar, and published biannually (in February and August every year)








Visitors’ Behavioral Patterns and the Interactive Models at the Penang House of Music, Malaysia



As a world-class tourist destination, Penang or "The Pearl of Orient" is a very widely known state in Malaysia and abroad, where there are various notable attractions available in this state such as dazzling beaches, heritage landmarks, delightful street food, and several other. Nonetheless, there are several Malaysians who do not realize that there is a considerable number of interactive museums in the state of Penang. The interactive museums in Penang also provide top-notch and first-class collections and facilities that could lure local visitors and tourists from all over the world. Besides the city-state of Kuala Lumpur and Malacca which is becoming the center of attraction for tourists, Penang is another state that receives lots of tourists from numerous parts of the world. Through observation, tourists visit Malaysia, not only for their interest in Malaysian culture, heritage as well as foods but tourists from different parts of the world nowadays are heading towards museums for, they realize that museums offer many things they could learn from. In discussing museums, Penang offers museums of many kinds. The Penang House of Music, as an example, is Penang's most well-known interactive museum which features an unparalleled variety of interactive models. This interactive museum is one of the well-received museums in Penang by both local visitors and tourists. The interactive models introduced at the Penang House of Music are among the finest in Penang, which is discussed in this article. As one of the World Heritage Sites, the city of Georgetown, the capital of Penang, is believed to consist of the greatest number of interactive museums in Malaysia, which have the potential to expand aggressively. Other than discussing models of interactive museums, this article also analyzes the behavioral pattern of the visitors at the Penang House of Music, as these topics are linked to each other. This is because the models at the interactive museums influence the behavioral pattern of visitors in terms of attendance at the museums regardless of age, educational background plusthe purpose of visit. The central issue in this paper will however emphasize more on the interactive models to relate to the museum’s effort in attracting more returners.


Keywords: Penang, interactive museum, models, behavioral pattern


The Aesthetic of Bridal Songket in Malay Traditional Wedding Attire



Songket is one of the valuable traditional Malay weaving fabrics which is often used as a Malay wedding dress. The term Songket is derived from a Malay word “menyungkit” (leverage) using “gimpal” thread (gold and silver). However, nowadays its usage is beginning to decline due to the presence of foreign fabrics such as Thai silk and the fact is that many Malay brides and grooms are beginning to favor foreign fabrics to dress up at their wedding.This situation eventually would disrupt the production of Songket and affect its reputation as the popular traditional fabric of Malay weddings. Hence, this research aims to examine the aesthetic of Songket fabric in Malay traditional wedding. Researchers used these six principles of the beauty in Malay art by Zakaria Ali in order to interpret the aesthetic of songket in Malay wedding attire that consists of finesse, functional, symbolism, unity, meaningful and contrasting. In conclusion, it could be stated that the aesthetic aspect Songket is very important in Malay society regardless of social status or wealth. Hence, as a national heritage, Songket has to be preserved and revived to its former glory so that it will not be forgotten by future generations.


Keywords: Aesthetic, Beauty, Bridal, Malay, Songket, Wedding.